Compiling the source code#
The first step in the build process is to compile the source code. The output from this step is generally known as the object code — a set of instructions for the computer generated from the human-readable source code. Different compilers will produce different object codes from the same source code and the naming conventions are different.
If you use a particular compiler for one source file, you need to use the same compiler (or a compatible one) for all other pieces. After all, a program may be built from many different source files and the compiled pieces have to cooperate.
Each source file will be compiled and the result is stored in a file with an extension like “.o” or “.obj”. It is these object files that are the input for the next step: the link process.
Compilers are complex pieces of software: they have to understand the language in much more detail and depth than the average programmer. They also need to understand the inner working of the computer. And then, over the years they have been extended with numerous options to customise the compilation process and the final program that will be built.
But the basics are simple enough. Take the gfortran compiler, part of the GNU compiler collection. To compile a simple program as the one above, that consists of one source file, you run the following command, assuming the source code is stored in the file “hello.f90”:
$ gfortran -c hello.f90
This results in a file “hello.o” (as the gfortran compiler uses “.o” as the extension for the object files).
The option “-c” means: only compile the source files. If you were to leave it out, then the default action of the compiler is to compile the source file and start the linker to build the actual executable program. The command:
$ gfortran hello.f90
results in an executable file, “a.out” on Linux or “a.exe” on Windows.
The compiler may complain about the contents of the source file, if it finds something wrong with it — a typo for instance or an unknown keyword. In that case the compilation process is broken off and you will not get an object file or an executable program. For instance, if the word “program” was inadvertently typed as “prgoram”:
$ gfortran hello3.f90 hello.f90:1:0: 1 | prgoram hello | Error: Unclassifiable statement at (1) hello3.f90:3:17: 3 | end program hello | 1 Error: Syntax error in END PROGRAM statement at (1) f951: Error: Unexpected end of file in 'hello.f90'
Using this compilation report you can correct the source code and try again.
The step without “-c” can only succeed if the source file contains a main program — characterised by the
programstatement in Fortran. Otherwise the link step will complain about a missing “symbol”, something along these lines:
$ gfortran hello2.f90 /usr/lib/../lib64/crt1.o: In function `_start': (.text+0x20): undefined reference to `main' collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
The file “hello2.f90” is almost the same as the file “hello.f90”, except
that the keyword
program has been replaced by the keyword
The above examples of output from the compiler will differ per compiler and platform on which it runs. These examples come from the gfortran compiler running in a Cygwin environment on Windows.
Compilers also differ in the options they support, but in general:
Options for optimising the code — resulting in faster programs or smaller memory footprints;
Options for checking the source code — checks that a variable is not used before it has been given a value, for instance or checks if some extension to the language is used;
Options for the location of include or module files, see below;
Options for debugging.