Organising code structure#

Most programming languages allow you to collect commonly-used code into procedures that can be reused by calling them from other sections of code.

Fortran has two forms of procedure:

  • Subroutine: invoked by a call statement

  • Function: invoked within an expression or assignment to which it returns a value

Both subroutines and functions have access to variables in the parent scope by argument association; unless the value attribute is specified, this is similar to call by reference.


The subroutine input arguments, known as dummy arguments, are specified in parentheses after the subroutine name; the dummy argument types and attributes are declared within the body of the subroutine just like local variables.


! Print matrix A to screen
subroutine print_matrix(n,m,A)
  implicit none
  integer, intent(in) :: n
  integer, intent(in) :: m
  real, intent(in) :: A(n, m)

  integer :: i

  do i = 1, n
    print *, A(i, 1:m)
  end do

end subroutine print_matrix

Note the additional intent attribute when declaring the dummy arguments; this optional attribute signifies to the compiler whether the argument is ‘’read-only’’ (intent(in)) ‘’write-only’’ (intent(out)) or ‘’read-write’’ (intent(inout)) within the procedure. In this example, the subroutine does not modify its arguments, hence all arguments are intent(in).

It is good practice to always specify the intent attribute for dummy arguments; this allows the compiler to check for unintentional errors and provides self-documentation.

We can call this subroutine from a program using a call statement:

program call_sub
  implicit none

  real :: mat(10, 20)

  mat(:,:) = 0.0

  call print_matrix(10, 20, mat)

end program call_sub

This example uses a so-called explicit-shape array argument since we have passed additional variables to describe the dimensions of the array A; this will not be necessary if we place our subroutine in a module as described later.


! L2 Norm of a vector
function vector_norm(n,vec) result(norm)
  implicit none
  integer, intent(in) :: n
  real, intent(in) :: vec(n)
  real :: norm

  norm = sqrt(sum(vec**2))

end function vector_norm

In production code, the intrinsic function norm2 should be used.

To execute this function:

program run_fcn
  implicit none

  real :: v(9)
  real :: vector_norm

  v(:) = 9

  print *, 'Vector norm = ', vector_norm(9,v)

end program run_fcn

It is good programming practice for functions not to modify their arguments—that is, all function arguments should be intent(in). Such functions are known as pure functions. Use subroutines if your procedure needs to modify its arguments.


Fortran modules contain definitions that are made accessible to programs, procedures, and other modules through the use statement. They can contain data objects, type definitions, procedures, and interfaces.

  • Modules allow controlled scoping extension whereby entity access is made explicit

  • Modules automatically generate explicit interfaces required for modern procedures

It is recommended to always place functions and subroutines within modules.


module my_mod
  implicit none

  private  ! All entities are now module-private by default
  public public_var, print_matrix  ! Explicitly export public entities

  real, parameter :: public_var = 2
  integer :: private_var


  ! Print matrix A to screen
  subroutine print_matrix(A)
    real, intent(in) :: A(:,:)  ! An assumed-shape dummy argument

    integer :: i

    do i = 1, size(A,1)
      print *, A(i,:)
    end do

  end subroutine print_matrix

end module my_mod

Compare this print_matrix subroutine with that written outside of a module we no longer have to explicitly pass the matrix dimensions and can instead take advantage of assumed-shape arguments since the module will generate the required explicit interface for us. This results in a much simpler subroutine interface.

To use the module within a program:

program use_mod
  use my_mod
  implicit none

  real :: mat(10, 10)

  mat(:,:) = public_var

  call print_matrix(mat)

end program use_mod

Example: explicit import list

use my_mod, only: public_var

Example: aliased import

use my_mod, only: printMat=>print_matrix

Each module should be written in a separate .f90 source file. Modules need to be compiled prior to any program units that use them.